If this is your first encounter with antibodies, you may be unaware of their significance. Antibodies are part of the body’s fighters, assisting in the fight against harmful invading particles.
Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are proteins generated by the immune system to aid in the battle against virusrs.
This article will discuss antibodies, their purpose, how they are made, and how they combat antigens. Also, we’d go over why it’s essential to choose rabbits for antibody production.
What Are Antibodies?
When an invader enters the body, the immune system goes in high gear and produces a custom antibody that battles it off. These invading agents, known as antigens, might be viruses, bacteria, or other substances.
So, when an antigen is discovered in the body, the immune system produces antibodies to designate the antigen for destruction by the body.
It’s also important to note that antibodies can be used for medical and diagnostic applications in the form of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies.
What is a Monoclonal Antibody?
The term monoclonal refers to a single clone. Monoclonal antibodies are identical antibodies created in the laboratory from a single clone of immune cells. Because the cloned immune cells are genetically similar, the antibodies they make are likewise identical.
This construction is ideal since we require many similar antibodies to function effectively. Monoclonal antibodies are particular, meaning they can detect and attach to a single antigen-binding site.
This implies that monoclonal antibodies are directed against a specific antigen. This essential feature makes them valuable in disease diagnosis and treatment.
What is a Polyclonal Antibody?
This sort of antibody comprises immunoglobulin molecules that are released in response to a specific antigen. They are generated by several clones of plasma B cells.
Moreover, unlike monoclonal antibodies, which interact with a particular epitope on the antigen, it interacts with many epitopes on the same antigen.
Among the benefits of polyclonal antibodies is having a solid sensitivity for low-quantity proteins. Because of the identification of many epitopes, antibodies have a higher overall affinity for the antigen.
What is the Difference Between Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibody?
When an immunogen (antigen) is injected into an animal, the B cells of the first immune response release a variety of antibodies that recognize and bind to various epitopes on the antigen.
Polyclonal antibodies are so-called because the antibodies released are synthesized by many plasma cells. Monoclonal antibodies, on the other hand, are designed to be generated by the same B cells that are clones of a single parent cell.
This implies that monoclonal antibodies may only recognize and bind to the same antigen epitope, decreasing the possibility of cross-reactivity.
Although both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies have advantages and disadvantages when used as research tools. The variability of polyclonal antibodies restricts their development, validation, and use. As a result, monoclonal antibodies are often chosen over polyclonal antibodies.
Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody Production.
Rabbit monoclonal antibodies have the same consistency as standard mouse monoclonal antibodies but have higher specificity and sensitivity.
After immunizing rabbits, the resultant spleen cells are united with partner cells to create an immortal cell line that produces antibodies. The antibodies are made from a single clone and tested for application performance. The best clone is then selected to produce antibodies.
Why select rabbit monoclonal antibodies?
Monoclonal antibodies have typically been generated in rodents such as mice Because it is less expensive and easier to control.
However, the use of rabbits as a host species is increasingly becoming the preferred choice of monoclonal antibody for use in a wide range of research, diagnostics, and clinical applications. Because rabbits’ immune systems can produce a broader range of high-affinity antibodies than mice.
Rabbit monoclonal antibodies also induces a more significant immune response and has a higher affinity and specificity to the epitope. Antibodies produced in rats are more likely to recognize proteins as self-antigens, making them less immunogenic.
Furthermore, rabbits are better at generating antibodies to short peptides with tiny epitopes, often eliciting a weak response in mice.
Again, many small fragments that evoke an adverse reaction in mice produce a positive reaction in rabbits. As a result of these factors, rabbit monoclonal antibodies are becoming more popular in research and therapeutic applications.
As these antibodies become more widely used, their utilization will most certainly eclipse their mouse counterparts.
The bottom line
In conclusion, the benefits of a rabbit monoclonal antibody do not end with the manufacturing process but continue with their implementation in real-world applications. A more powerful immune system during manufacture means improved antibody sensitivity and, therefore, reduced product consumption while conducting research. The next generation of monoclonal antibodies is recombinant antibodies, which are considered the future of antibody manufacturing.
Recombinant antibodies are monoclonal antibodies that have been produced by in vitro cloning of the antibody-heavy and light chain DNA sequences from the B cells or plasma cells of immunized animals. This recombinant technology results in almost no lot-to-lot variability, removing the risk of genetic drift resulting in variations in monoclonal antibodies.